Disclaimer: these tips are mainly for on-piste advanced carving skiing. But I honestly think that the best skiers are the most complete ones. I strongly agree with the following:
“The best skiers are the all-around skiers… The guys that are able to rip in the park, rip in the woods, rip powder, rip everything. They are just very good natural skiers”. Paul Epstein – Global Racing Private Ski Team Head Coach
One of the things that expert skiers have in common is that they can create supreme edge angles in the turn (like you see in the World Cup!). Why they would do that? In short, to make the shortest radius carved turn possible. In a carved turn, the more edge angle you produce, the more the ski will bend, and the shorter the radius of the turn will be. Edge angle is the most important factor to determine how much a ski will bend. The load is secondary, and it is created mainly by the skier’s natural weight balancing on the ski. The amount of load depends primarily on the skier’s speed. advanced skiing
But first things first. What is edging? Edging is the ability to tip the ski on edge and adjust the angle between the base of the ski and the snow. In common words, it is tipping and un-tipping the skis. We edge the skis either to turn or to slow down (or both). Most recreational skiers change direction and slow down at the same time (skidded turns), but racers typically change direction without slowing down (carved turns). In a carved turn, the tail of the ski follows the tip in the exact path/groove.
When tipped on edge, the ski bends because of its “hourglass” shape. If you take one ski, lay it over flat, and then tip it, you’ll see that only the tips and tails touch the ground/snow, and the middle part of the ski is “in the air”. With the skier’s weight, the ski bends until the middle part touches the snow too. The higher the edge angle, the higher the amount of ski bending, and the tighter the turn radius.advanced skiing
Generating amazing angles correctly is about keeping always our balance over the outside ski during the turn. Balancing predominantly over the outside ski is the most efficient and stable way to turn. As an example, and to illustrate it, when we are running and want to change direction suddenly, we always lean on the outside leg to change direction.
It is important to note that, in order to generate outside ski pressure, we have to think in terms of BALANCE. We should balance mainly on the outside ski indirectly, that is by unweighting the inside ski. So we don’t push or step with the outside leg, we just balance on it, by flexing/unweighting the inside one.
The five most important elements for achieving that “full range carving turns” correctly (in my humble opinion) are:
1) High speed (and/or steep slopes)
To turn with huge edge angles while keeping balance over the outside ski, high speed (or a steep pitch) is mandatory. We need the strong G-forces (tangential inertia, actually) generated by the high speed that move our balance out, to the outside ski. If you don’t have enough speed, and try to generate those big angles, you will end up with your balance over the inside ski… not good… so practice in a well-groomed not too crowded intermediate run where you feel comfortable with, so you can generate speed safely. advanced skiing
2) Hip-width stance
The stance (how wide the feet are apart) should be “hip-wide”. It is very important not to widen your stance width more than that. During a turn, the skis should have vertical separation, not horizontal… Horizontal separation is how wide the feet are apart. In a good athletic stance on skis, the distance your feet are apart should be no different than that when you’re standing, walking, running, or standing on your skis on a flat hill.
The vertical separation of your feet is the distance in height, one foot to the other. While skiing, vertical separation of the feet is constantly changing and is directly related to edge angles that are developed. Vertical separation is usually the greatest at or just after the apex of a turn when a skier is resisting the combined forces of gravity and centrifugal force. It’s at its least during the transition phase between turns.
A horizontal stance that is too narrow will limit balance, foot independence, and use of the inside ski. A horizontal stance that is too wide will cause a balance shift onto the inside foot and limit inclination.d s
When you shorten your inside leg, you move the skis away from each other, but at a vertical distance. If you make the mistake of separating your skis horizontally (“widen the stance”) and then crouch down to get the angles, you will end up having your balance over your inside ski, and that’s not good at all… in this situation, the inside ski will be right under you and your center of mass also known as the core of the body (which generally lies between the navel and the spine). Also, you will have not parallel shins, with quite less edge angle in the inside ski compared to the outside one. (A.K.A. “A-frame”…) Just to clarify, the outside ski is the ski farthest from the center of the turn. Conversely, the inside ski is the ski closest to the center of the turn.
In addition, the “hip width” stance is the one that allows for faster and simultaneous feet rolling and edge changing during transition.
3) Strong inside inclination / “toppling” at the beginning of the turn
One of the key aspects, in order to get huge angles, is to really “throw” yourself to the inside, at the very beginning of the turn, by extending/pushing with the outside leg. Or in other words, let yourself fall to the inside of the turn by the means of gravity (“toppling“). Toppling at the beginning of the turn means allowing gravity to make us fall to the inside of the turn to get easy and early edges engagement. This way we create ski angles fast, and we move the base of support (the skis) away from our center of mass, in order to allow us to generate an upcoming very high edge angle on the skis. It will be followed by upper body angulation to keep our balance on the outside ski as we progress in the turn. We need to move the skis out and away from our body, in order to develop big edge angles.
This strong and on-purpose movement to the inside needs to be learned, and somewhat feels like moving into an unbalanced lateral position, but believe me, it is really important in order to produce the highest edge angles, later on in the turn.
We can clearly see it in the picture below of “Mr. GS” Ted Ligety:
We need to move the skis out and away from our body, in order to develop big edge angles.
As Ted Ligety himself talked about it in an Instagram Live with Jonny Mosely: “One of the most common novice questions people ask me is regarding how much weight on each ski… And I never think about it but it’s pretty much 100% on the outside foot. The inside foot is kind of just dragging in there. On the flats might be 80/20 because you’re pumping the turns. But you’re never thinking what the percentage is. It is over the outside ski where you want to be!
Jonny Moseley says mogul skiing is just the same, 100% from outside ski to outside ski.
“One of the most common novice questions people ask me is regarding how much weight on each ski… And I never think about it but it’s pretty much 100% on the outside foot. But you’re never thinking what the percentage is. It is over the outside ski where you want to be!“
4) Flexing or shortening of the inside leg/knee
To accomplish those great angles, the key is to shorten/collapse the inside leg by flexing the inside knee, while you are moving to the inside of the turn. Flexing the inside leg drags the hips both down and in. That’s the holy grail, flexing the inside knee deeply (bend it a lot). The more you shorten the inside leg, the more you’re going to “fall” or move to the inside of the turn and the more edge angle you’ll be creating. This “falling to the inside” happens naturally and passively by shortening the inside leg, we don’t push our body at all. It’s like a “free fall” of the body to the inside of the turn. In order to move our center of mass further inside the turn and achieve those angles, we have to deeply flex the inside leg in order to “get it out of the way” as well. If we don’t do that, the inside leg blocks the ability to move further inside.
The highest edge angle is achieved when you have (briefly) your inside hip touching or rubbing the snow. That happens at or after the fall line. This movement of progressively moving to the inside of the turn by shortening the inside leg is similar to what happens if you cut and shorten one leg of a standing ladder. The whole ladder is going to tip/move to that side…
Again, flexing the inside leg throughout the turn in a relatively narrow stance, generates a vertical separation of the skis (not horizontal, so please do not separate your legs). Take a look at the picture below of Ted Ligety (credits to Ron LeMaster). We can note that limbs are close together…
In ski racing nothing happens because it looks good, it’s all about performance…
Skiing is about balancing on one leg, the outside one. That’s the more efficient way of turning. Regarding ski pressure, the inside leg is light and somehow “comes along for the ride”.
Let’s imagine that we are running straight down a flat, empty street and we want to turn or change direction quickly to avoid an obstacle. Which leg do we lean (or balance on) to do it? Right, on the opposite leg to the side we want to go. Or what is the same, on the external leg. That is the most stable and efficient way to change direction. In skiing, it’s just the same.
In addition, it is simply way harder to balance on the outside of your foot (that is balancing over the inside ski) than on the inside of your foot (that is balancing over the outside ski).
In case there are any doubts, let’s look at the image below:
Stefan Rogentin of the Swiss Ski Team arching that outside ski… Look at the flexing pattern, deeply flexed on the shovel, and straighter in the tail of the ski. The majority of the skis are designed to behave like that (softer shovel, harder tail) to facilitate turn initiation.
As well as flexing, the inside leg must tip to the inside of the turn to get the edge angles. The inside ski tipping leads the tipping of the outside ski (and not the other way around!). If you try to tip the skis with the outside ski first, you get the “A-Frame” problem mentioned above, because the inside leg does not follow the outside one. So in order to have similar edge angles on both skis, it is key to have parallel shins. Take a look at Allie Resnick from the US Ski Team demonstrating this beautiful SL turn. Note the similar edge angles on both skis:
Regarding leg activity, in high-level skiing, we focus (or pay attention) more on the inside leg work, than the outside one. While skiing down the slope, we focus mainly on flexing and tipping the inside leg, and that’s how we, indirectly (and almost automatically), get angles and pressure on the outside ski. While skiing, the inside leg is much more active than the outside. Speaking in terms of balance, to go from outside foot to outside foot during the turns, we have to work mainly with each inside leg. So high-level skiing is all about inside leg active performance. advanced skiing
The focus is on the inside half of the body that creates the major movements. This way gives you perfect balance on the outside ski, which is still the dominant balancing foot.
The outside leg is the dominant regarding balance/weight, but not in terms of movement. In skiing, the inside leg does much more active work than the outside one.
Key aspect: In the first third of the turn we move our whole body to the inside, called “inclination” to create edge angles early. This early inclination starts from tipping the feet, ankles, and knees to the inside, and not from the hips! See “park and ride” below…d skiing
“In skiing everything starts from the ground up, from the feet up…”
5) Upper body angulation
Angulation happens mostly in the second part of the turn and involves making angles with the body, created primarily at the hip. In high-level skiing, we need to move the upper body to the outside of the turn, strongly. The more you do this, the more outside ski pressure you’re going to get This is another key aspect. It helps to try to “lift” the inside shoulder up, or even better, try to “lift” the inside hip up (AKA “hip hike“). When you see an advanced skier, it seems that the torso stays “still” from one turn to the other, since the upper body does not appear to move. This can confuse the observer, as it is actually quite the opposite. To generate upper body angulation, you need to actively move your torso to the side, to the outside of the turn. The more you tip your skis inside, the more you have to side crunch with your torso (bring the ribs to the hips). It is crucial to train and strengthen those muscles involved, in the gym.
In the snow, practice it by exaggerating (a whole lot) the exercises that improve that skill specifically. There are a lot, but the “Scholpy Drill” is one of the best. Erik Schlopy former Olympian and actual U.S. Ski Team Coach. advanced skiing
To help develop upper body angulation, you need to counter-rotate with your torso as well. Turn/rotate your torso opposite to the direction of the skis. This allows for better edge hold and greater upper body angulation angles. Start the counter as soon as you start the turn. You’ll note that upper body angulation will be easier to perform. In fact, upper body angulation and counter go always in tandem.dvanced skiing
That being said, it is important to differentiate that short or Slalom turns require a lot of counter-rotation (upper-body always stable facing the valley), but long or Giant Slalom turns require less counter-rotation. advanced skiing
Counter-rotation of the upper body was first developed by the Austrian instructors in the 1930s, as opposed to the “French” school that, at that time, used the rotation of the whole body as a unit or block. This French technique involved starting with a slow counter-rotation of the upper body (as a sort of a wind-up) and followed by a quick rotation of the whole body into the turn. By the way, this technique described in the written ski teaching manual “Ski Français” by Emile Allais in 1936, involved teaching beginner skiers to ski parallel without the use of wedge or stem christie turns.
So in high-level skiing, we look for “UPPER-LOWER BODY SEPARATION“: the legs and feet are tipping and turning one way and the upper body is tipping and turning the other way, for a complete separation (lateral separation + rotational separation).
Key concept: It is very important to note that angulation happens mostly in the second half of the turn, and always after some amount of inclination that needs to happen at the beginning. If we start the turn already “angulated”, we block our hips and limit the amount of edge angle generated, creating the famous and not good “park and ride” style (see at the end of this post).
Take a look at this next image, an excellent photo montage of Ted Ligety on a GS turn. We can see the strong inclination (whole body tipping in) in the first two frames. After that, upper body angulation starts and gets really extreme towards the end of the turn (last frame), as Ted Ligety (AKA “Mr. GS“) has us used to see in his beautiful skiing… This is actually the front cover of one of the best ski technique books ever written. I strongly recommend all passionate skiers to read it. Thanks Ron LeMaster for this masterpiece!!!
In the next picture, Jett Seymour from the US Ski Team is showing extreme counter-rotation of the upper body or typically referred to as just “counter”. Note how the upper body is pointed in a different direction than the legs. advanced skiing
6) Fore-aft aspect
In order to start a turn effectively, we need to move our Center of Mass forward to bend or balance over the shovel of the skis. We must start the turn by engaging the tip of the ski, so we look for “getting to the front of the ski” at the initiation.
That’s key in order to be centered when we arrive to the most important part of the turn: the loading phase. The loading phase is when we apply almost all the pressure and the major ski deflection occurs. In the modern slalom technique (SL turns), the pressure or loading phase is short and abrupt, and it happens all at once at the fall line (i.e. the middle or apex of the turn).
It’s absolutely OK to be in the backseat at transition and initiation, but it is mandatory to move our center of mass forward in order to be centered when we load/pressure the skis (at the fall-line).
Skiing, unlike the majority of sports, is a super counterintuitive activity and you have to work against basic instincts (like self-preservation) to get better at it. In order to get pressure on the front part of the ski (shovel) and successfully initiate a turn, we need to move our Center of Mass forward at the beginning (“high C”) of the turn. This means, for example in the steeps, to “face the danger” and “dive into the abyss”. Leaning downhill goes against all common sense. That’s counterintuitive, but mandatory for good skiing.
So, CONTROL is all about good turn initiation, which is achieved by counter-intuitive movements. Good turn initiation means achieving a “capital C” letter turn shape. Good round turns directly relate to speed control.
If we happen to be in the backseat, and unable to load the shovel at the start of the turn, we end up with Z-shaped turns, with poor speed control. In this wrong type of turn, we do all the edging and pressure all at once and late in the turn. Snow spraying off the skis is directly downhill, and the line of descent is straight down the fall line with almost no lateral offset of the skier. That’s why we look to pressure our shins against the tongue of the boots. But that’s only at the beginning of the turn.
In skiing, fore-aft balance is dynamic, not static. It is in a constant cycle. In normal high-level skiing, skiers always go from being back at the end of one turn to being forward at initiation of the next turn. Again, the key is being centered at the fall-line.
As Mikaela Shiffrin on an interview (here) said: “The key for fore-aft balance, for me, is to try not to stay in one position. Because skiing is such a fluid sport, you’re always moving. And if you become static with your fore-aft balance, the the rest of your turn is going to be static. So, it’s really important to be able to be forward at the top of the turn and then try to use the rear of the skis. Not the tails really, but you know let your skis kind of shoot out from under you a little bit. Just try to play with the entire ski because you have a whole ski for a reason. You want to use the whole thing as a tool. And if you can use the tip-to-tail perfectly and be in balance, then you’re going to have a faster turn.”
In the photo above we can appreciate Mikaela Shiffrin finishing an SL turn. Please note how balance is mainly on the tails of the skis, with the tips actually elevated up in the air. Note as well the amount of counter-rotation of the upper body.
Another excellent tip comes from River Radamus, a U.S. Ski Team GS World Cup athlete: “When I’m entering into a turn all I’m thinking about is pulling my feet behind me. That move really flipped the switch for me in years past. Pulling the feet behind me is such a clear sensation for me and allows me to be at the front of the outside ski, to do the top of the turn right.”
River Radamus Arcing a GS turn. Note the eye-catching hip drag.
In skiing, fore-aft balance is dynamic, not static. It is in a constant cycle. In normal high-level skiing, skiers always go from being back at the end of one turn to being forward at initiation of the next turn. Again, the key is being centered at the fall-line.
7) Foot pressure goes from front to back, during the turn advanced king
While the turn develops, the norm is that our CM moves backward and we end up finishing the turn with our balance over our heels and tails of the skis. At the feet level, the balance point moves from the ball of the foot at the beginning of the turn, back to the heels, at the end. That’s what happens naturally, even on short turns. In order to start a new turn again, we have to move our CM forward again, and so on.
One study published in 2010 by T. Keränen et all., compared two groups of FIS-Ranked athletes, group 1 ranked higher than group 2. This study demonstrated that both groups had the same kind of center of plantar pressure fore/backward movement, which is associated with the ski’s bending during the turn. But the higher-ranked athletes were able to produce more force through the frontal part of the foot to the ski and their center of pressure trajectory had larger mediolateral movement than the lower-ranked group.
Thus, the better the skier, the more pressure on the ball of the foot is able to generate, and the more edge angle they produce as well.
The better the skier, the more pressure on the ball of the foot is able to generate at the begining of the turn.
Skiing is all about balancing while in motion. Skiing is the ultimate balancing act. The focus in skiing is to stay in balance into the future! In order to keep fore-aft balance, we need to have our center of mass over the base of support (our feet).
8) “Aggressive” mindset
High-level skiing requires a lot of attitude and self-confidence. That “aggressive” mindset (and eventually, aggressive skiing) is absolutely necessary to be able to “get to the front of the skis” on the steep pitches. To “move forward into the abyss”, in order to load/bend the shovel of the new outside ski and make good turns. Both intensity and “aggressiveness” while skiing are very important, and sometimes it’s what it takes for a seasoned skier to reach the next level. So go for it! Like in almost all aspects of life, attitude is everything!
9) Surface and equipment
As well, it is important to mention that we need a hard surface (hard-packed snow), sharp edges, and relatively stiff skis to be able to “hold an edge” while performing those angles. Tuning the skis to keep them sharp is very important. Sharp edges help you carve better. Those big angles do require sharp skis in order to prevent the sudden loss of grip during that high-performance type of turn.
Binding riser plates (AKA “lifters“) help a lot in developing high edge angles because they create more leverage. These lifters are pieces of material between skis and bindings that elevate boots farther off the skis and snow. They also allow the skier to hold a steeper edge angle without encountering “boot out“. Boot out occurs when the side of the boot hits the snow, causing the ski to get knocked off edge.
Regarding the base surface If the snow is soft, we could end up disengaging the outside ski off the snow during the turn (“to lose the outside ski”, particularly in the second part). If we lose the support of the outside ski, what happens is that all the balance (or pressure) moves strongly and abruptly to the (otherwise unloaded) inside ski. It then makes the inside ski bend violently and carve a very short radius path. Next, it is usual that we get thrown away with a 180 degrees air twist and fall over our backs, with the associated dangerous whiplash. That’s a pretty common way of crashing for advanced skiers. advanced skiing
This video is an example of this type of crash experienced by French World Cup racer Thomas Fanara during a race:
In the proper turn (figure 1), the skis (i.e. my base of support) are relatively far from my center of mass… and both shins are parallel, with similar edge angles in both skis. The inside boot is almost touching the outside leg (knee)… so my stance is actually narrow (“hip width”). The separation of one ski over the other is only vertical. Yet, because both legs are tipped to the inside, it “looks” like I would be using a wide stance, but that’s not true. It’s the exact opposite. You can see the strong upper body angulation as well. Also, we can say that my balance is predominantly over my outside ski because it is much more bent than the inside ski. advanced skiing
Figure 1 – Skier: Federico Wenzel
P.S. you can also see my face with tightly clenched teeth because of the strong G-forces I’m experiencing (and trying to withstand) in that high-speed high edge angle carved turn.
Generating those amazing angles while keeping dominant outside ski pressure is a very advanced skill. That’s why the River Radamus (a young US Ski Team athlete) #hipdragchallenge he did on Instagram was so successful and a beauty to watch… advanced skiing
10) Gradualness & progressiveness
The edge angle develops progressively, increasing continuously from the edge change until 3/4 (three quarters) of the turn, where it is the highest. Then starts to decrease for transitioning to the next turn. So edge angle is not static throughout the turn. That’s a typical error among intermediate skiers, that develop all the edge angles at once at the beginning of the turn, and then remain static the rest of it. They create angles by actively pushing themselves to the inside of the turn (instead of the correct way which is “free falling” of the body to the inside by shortening the inside leg). It’s called “hip dumping” or “park and ride” style:
-Hip dumping: is when the hip puts the ski on edge rather than foot tipping. They just throw the hips in to create edge angles.
-Park and ride: when the skier builds all angles, in the lower and upper body, at the beginning of the turn and just rides the skis statically around the rest of the turn. Take a look at the next picture… advanced skiing
“Hip dumping” error
Here is is another mistake, trying to generate big angles by crouching down over the inside ski:
Observe that his balance is mainly on the inside ski, which is right under his center of mass. His base of support (skis) is too close to the center of mass. He has different edge angles on both skis, and the stance is too wide (legs are too far apart). Look at the horizontal separation of both legs. The inside boot is quite far from the outside leg. Although funny, not good at all… advanced skiing
Give it a try to the tips we discussed in this post, so you can break off the plateau and get to that next level…
See you on the slopes!
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Fantastic article! One area I struggle the most is applying enough pressure to the front of the foot at the initiation of the turn. I am using the Carv app and I get notification that I am applying more pressure on the hill. I am using the booster strap and keep them pretty tight. When I try to apply pressure to the front of my leg I feel like the strap is getting the pressure. I may be indirectly applying front pressure through booster strap but not directly with my feet. would love any advice
Hello Seckin, and thank you for your comment. Flexing the ankle/driving the outside knee forward in order to apply pressure to the front part of the outside leg and ball of the foot at turn initiation, remains the holy grail of advanced skiing. There are a lot of considerations regarding the equipment and/or technique in order to achieve this consistently. Regarding ski boots, adjusting the ramp angle in order to have pressure evenly over the whole front part of the cuff is key (and not only on the upper part, like you are experiencing). The order thing I would like to point out is that if the ski boot’s flex is too high for your ski level/weight, or if the booster is too stiff, you are not going to be able to flex the boot properly and transmit that load to the shovel of the ski adequately. So try to soften a bit and test too.
If you have a video of your skiing, I strongly suggest doing a video-analysis session with me or another professional in order to check on your skiing. Thanks a lot, and cheers from St. Moritz!
Great article from one of the best in the world. Fede, as an intermediate skier, I’m trying to understand ski carving biomechanics,
some instructors emphasize on “femur rotation” as main move, and effective skiing team on “ankle” rotation, as primary for edging, or is it a combination of them? Thanks
Thank you for your comments, Tito, I really appreciate them. Regarding your question, a very interesting topic by the way: what I think is that femur rotation is the main movement in order to move the knees in, into the turn. Because the knee joint cannot actually flex laterally. It is all made by femur rotation. But, having said that, the edging of the skis should always start from the feet and ankles, by tipping them in (supination of the unweighted inside foot is key). That is, for me, the first and foremost movement we should look for carving (and skidded turns as well). So to achieve edge angles we use a combination of whole body inclination, tipping of the feet and ankles, and moving the knees in by femur rotation. Hope that answers your question, and cheers from St. Mortiz #topoftheworld :-).
Excellent article, at age 75 skiing in Colorado I have been able to get edge angles above 50-55, and will keep trying all that you recommend. But remain puzzled still by the exact sequence of steps for turn initiation, apparently some of your suggestions are done simultaneously and others are sequenced. Have looked at a slow motion of turn initiation w commentary done by others but wondered if you could post a video about initiation with your excellent commentary.
Thank you for your comment Robert. And congratulations for keeping pushing it! I don’t really think it is a “sequence” of steps for turn initiation, I think it happens more fluidly and more less at the same time. But if I had to pick a sequence of movements, I would say that flexing to release the old outside leg, stepping on the old inside/new outside ski, changing edges, pulling both feet back, and toppling to the inside of the new turn by extending that new outside leg. Hope it helps! Cheers from St. Moritz!
This is an excellent article, one of the best pieces on ski technique I’ve read. Thanks Fede!
Thank you very much Kenny! Cheers from St. Moritz, Switzerland!
Wow, excellent description of just about everything that is involved in the turns pictured. Your entire library of articles is just like that – clear and comprehensive.
Have you thought about addressing the use of the arms at initiation in these highly dynamic turns? I’ve been working on lifting that new outside shoulder and arm at the top of the turn … at the same time as I flex the new inside leg. Moving that arm up in the air and tilting the shoulders into the turn moves my CoM over the skis faster and more dramatically. Theoretically this move should get my body entering the turn inclined as the WC skiers do in GS turns, but I haven’t yet had the gumption to let that arm raising produce that effect.
But the little “oomph” it gives me does get my CoM over the skis fast. Afterwards I progressively add the counter and angulation necessary to direct pressure to the outside ski. So far I haven’t felt the new inside leg supporting my weight, so I must be doing something right…..
And then there’s Ted’s swimming arms. I’d enjoy hearing you analyze that particular version of this arm raising.
Hello LiquidFeet, thanks for your much-appreciated feedback. Ted Ligety’s “pumping with the arms” technique is something remarkable, but as he said in an interview, he goes forward with the outside arm mainly for timing purposes. But only way after the apex of the turn, in order to not lean or rotate inside (what happens if you do it too early in a turn). Done correctly at the end of the turn, quote-unquote sets up your body to be in alignment for the top of the next turn and gets your hips through. Alice Robinson does something similar by the way. She had one of Ted’s coaches actually… cheers from Argentina!
Best post on how to be active with inside leg I have ever read. Thank you. Older skier that was coached heavily when younger on extending the outside leg and “throwing” cm into new turn but active inside leg was ignored resulting in ridiculous hip angles at top of turn that is neither efficient or particularly effective. Not trying to throw shade but dang PSIA seems to still have trouble getting hands around idea of active inside leg and vertical separation. This post combined with some Harb stuff and deb Armstrong stuff is getting this skiers hip to the snow. Thank you.
Thanks a lot for your accurate and thorough feedback, Bob. I do agree. The thing is once you hip-drag, you never go back! 🙂 Cheers from Switzerland
Good for old dogs attempting new tricks. I’m 82 year old hip dumping park and rider
Thanks Gary. Keep it up, and come skiing Argentina!
Nice write up. Clear, comprehensive.
Thanks Ed, hope it helps! Cheers from Argentina
very well written article, the only thing I would expand on is that you state in section 10 that maximum edge angle occurs at 3/4 point of the turn but dont explain why this happens. Given the article is all about achieving maximum angle why does maximum edge angle occur at the 3/4 point of the turn as opposed to the apex.
Great work !!
Thanks for your feedback Scott! Because three-quarters of the turn is where upper body angulation is at its peak, allowing for maximum edge angle while maintaining balance on the outside ski. Cheers from Argentina!
I think Fede is answering a slightly different question, “Why is it possible to achieve the highest edge angle…(at the 3/4 point)” rather than what I think might Scott’s true underlying question “Why is it necessary to achieve the highest edge angle…”
If so, my answer would be that at the 1/4 point, the force of the turn is partly offset by the force of gravity. At the 1/2 way point, the force you are trying to resist is entirely due to centrifugal force generated by the turn. At the 3/4 point the centrifugal force is augmented by gravity trying to pull you downhill.
By the 4/4 point your turn radius is increasing to infinity in preparation for tightening in the opposite direction, so there is no longer any centrifugal force. While the gravity force is now at a maximum, it is only 1G, whereas a tight turn could generate a further 2G or more.
Really good article.
yes…. this was truly helpful. Clear. Concise. Logical. Complete and thorough. Accurate. Myth-busting (eg. love the “wide stance” vs. “vertical separation” clarity)! Great videos and photo examples as well.
A fantastic piece for anybody to simply learn from and/or – for very advanced skiers and “skiing thinkers” – to confirm and better explain known coaching points.
Keep up the fabulous content!
Thanks a lot Kip for your thorough review of the post. Your feedback is very much appreciated. New posts are on the way! Cheers from Argentina!
Great insights/instruction Fede.
Thank you Frank, I’m glad you’ve found it useful. A considerable amount of time goes into writing this kind of post, so feedback is really appreciated. Cheers from Argentina!
As far as feedback, I had someone present the “leg shortening” advice during a level 3 alpine exam. That has never made a lot of sense to me. I’ve always thought that if you angulate, you’re inside leg must be shorter, or flexed. I got a lot more out of your explanation that your shins are parallel or how close your outside knee is to your inside shin, or even inside boot. I also took notice of how close your inside knee is to your chest. That alignment is important.
One other comment; I sent some bitcoin but not all readers have the capability to send crypto (at least here in the US). A paypal or venmo address might generate more payments?
Thanks Frank, that’s great feedback! Thank you very much for your donation. Yes, there is actually a PayPal donation button before the bitcoin donation QR. Maybe it is not clearly visible. I’ll work on that, thanks!
That’s totally my fault. I didn’t see it. Thanks for the content. When you get to Beaver Creek I’d like to see you ski!
Thanks Frank! It’s a true possibility to be in the Rockies next season for me. But come to ski Argentina in August. You won’t regret it!
Wanted to thank you for helping me get to the next level in my ski technique.
My pleasure S White! That’s my main goal. Help skiers get to that next level of enjoyment. Cheers from Argentina!
Absolutely fantastic article! The most comprehensive breakdown of advanced carving technique I’ve seen. I immediately had to share it with my online ski group. Thank you!
Thanks John! yes please, feel free to share it with your friends and family. We should help every intermediate skier to get to the level of enjoyment that only carving “arc to arc” turns can give you. That’s one of my main goals as a ski instructor!
Cheers from Argentina!
Indeed probably the best article i read so far on advance carving (quite comprehensive and with very useful examples …). Maybe there is one area to develop further around not letting the inside leg moving forward during the turn but overall awesome content !! Please continue to post new articles 😉
Thanks a lot Michael! for sure that’s a very interesting aspect of high level skiing! I will definitely add it to the article, in the near future. Thanks for pointing that out.
Cheers from Argentina!
Excellent article! One area that could be developed further is when and how to pressure the ski. It can be confusing to hear that the skier should NOT push out(and hip dump) but rather tip the ski on edge. So when the skier does pressure the edge where does this force come from in the body, what counters that force to keep balance, and when should it be done?
Thanks for your contribution Jason! In my humble opinion, how much a ski bends, depends much more on the amount of tipping (edge angle), and very little on the amount of pressure applied. Very little pressure is needed to bend the ski when it is tipped on edge.
So to carve a closer path, we need to strongly tip the skis on edge.
The tangential inertia is very much responsible for pressuring the skis during the turn.
Cheers from Argentina!
By far the best and. Most precise description I have ever encountered 😎👌
Thank you Henrik! I’m glad it was useful for you. Mote content is comming! Cheers!
Superb description in detail that makes sense. Given me some great tips can’t wait to put them into practice on my next trip to the home of skiing (Val d’Isere)! Cheers
Thanks Darren! I’m glad it was helpful, and I agree Val d’Isere is one of those places you should definitely go and ski, for at least 10 days!
I’m ski coaching in the Italian Dolomites now (Madonna di Campiglio area).
Cheers from the Dolomiti di Brenta!
At least from where I am at in my edge angles, this is perhaps the best, easy to understand description yet. I feel my muscle memory is so entrenched that it is hard to get past a certain angle. Going to focus more on inside leg and see what I can get.
Thanks a lot for your feedback, it really encourages me to keep writing new blog posts. I’m glad it makes sense. I must confess that while the inside leg activity is the key aspect in high-level skiing, in order to get more edge angle you need to “fall” to the inside of the turn more. Keep in mind that in order to keep outside ski balance, you will need to counterbalance your upper body to the outside of the turn.
The more you shorten (flex) the inside leg, the more you are going to “fall” to the inside of the turn, and the bigger the angles you generate.
Please try it, and don’t be afraid of going outside your comfort zone… that’s the way we improve and learn new movements and feel new sensations.
Cheers from Argentina! See you on the slopes!
I have been skiing for five decades, and yet it was only earlier this season that I worked out for myself that the inside leg is all I need to think about. *
It felt like such an important discovery, and yet no instructor had ever told me that (and I myself qualified as an instructor four decades ago).
And now that I no longer need the advice, here you are giving it to me. It feels like wonderful (and welcome) confirmation that I’m onto something important. Thanks so much!
*Actually not quite true. It is entirely true, for me at least, in relation to edge angle, though. For reasons I won’t go into, I still need to remember to slide my outside foot forward progressively and powerfully throughout the turn.
And to keep pressure on the ball of my outside foot’s big toe. I always knew I *should* do that, but (again) I only just worked out *why* : it’s for the benefit of the inside (medial) leg muscles of my outside leg. By firing them, my knee is stabilised to the point where it feels thirty years old (better actually, because I had weak medial quads at thirty, having been walking “flat footed” all my life)
Andrew, what I think is that progressive flex of the inside leg builds up progressively higher pressure over the outside foot. Cheers from Argentina!
Indeed, but what I had not realised until I worked it out earlier this year was that by concentrating on edging the inside ski, the outside leg would automatically follow, instad of being blocked by the inside knee being in the way.
I agree 100% with that. The edging needs to come from the inside foot and leg. The outside one will follow automatically and the shins will be parallel. If we look for edging with the outside foot/leg, the inside ones will not copy the outside one, and A-Framing will happen, with that blockage in edging capabilities. Thanks for your great insights! When are you coming to ski Southamerica? Cheers!
One of the best if not the best description of high performance basics! Thanks?
Thanks a lot! It took a considerable amount of time to write it. But it has everything I humbly and strongly believe of what “high-level skiing” is about… cheers from Argentina!
Excellent description of efficient skiing and easy to understand and spot on !
Thanks a lot for the feedback, Richard. I’m glad it was useful. New posts are coming soon. Stay tuned! Best regards…